Priestorová distribúcia geomorfologických procesov v dolinovom systéme Západných Tatier
Studies on development and spatiotemporal distribution of morphodynamic relief elements represent an important part of landscape ecological research of mountain and high mountains. The primary objective is to describe an approach to understanding of spatial differentiation of geomorphologic processes in relation to scales and hierarchical levels of relief. Spatiality is the basic principle of geographic and landscape ecological research, and it is an essential part of geomorphologic method. The study is based on the landscape research in the Jalovecká Valley and an excursion to the Západné Tatry Mts. The correct understanding of spatial interactions among processes themselves and/or processes and landscape features is always dependent on scale and hierarchical frame (level). Identification of suitable interpretation of knowledge on spatial interaction is a basis for further studies of processes and their effects in more complex structures such as ecosystems, geoecological units, landscape types, etc. The mesoscale is set as the level of valley systems typical by the axial gradient structure of processes and forms. The microscale is set as the level of slope systems typical by the vertical gradient structure of processes and forms. Expression of spatial interactions on mezo and micro relief scale is problematic. Understanding the variability of mesorelief is crucial to interpretation and understanding of hydrological, climatological, pedological, and biological patterns. In the relief of high mountain landscape of the Západné Tatry Mts., the four types of morphodynamic systems on the mesoscale were classified as follows: (1) Morphodynamic system of the cirques and the endings of glacially modeled valleys concentrates the gravitational rockslide processes, creeping slopes, avalanches, solifunction-gravitational processes; (2) Morphodynamic system of troughs that corresponds to glacially modeled parts of U-shaped valleys with initial and partially developed fluvial activity; (3) Morphodynamic system of glacifluvial morphogenesis typical for the middle parts of valleys effected by the fluvial processes; (4) Morphodynamic system of fluvial morphogenesis typical for the Západné Tatry Mts. In the microscale of the relief on the level of slopes and their parts in the Západné Tatry Mts., the four types of morphodynamic systems were classified as follows: (1) Peak morphodynamic system in which the ice weathering processes and denudation prevail; (2) Ridge morphodynamic system typical by ice weathering (pipcrake) and eolic-deflational processes; (3) Slope morphodynamic system includes several gravitational processes, mainly rocksliding, creeping, landsliding, moving of periglacial boulder fields, etc.; (4) Morphodynamic system of the valley bottoms is prevailed by fluvial erosion, lateral erosion with the initialization effect on slope processes, transmovement of stream bottom, etc. The proposed classification is designed for the application in the landscape ecology studies to evaluate the ecological stability of landscape systems.
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