Acidifikácia pôd Belianských Tatier
The primary objective of the study (GP 2/1048/94) was to prepare a digital map of soil reaction of the upper soil horizon in the area of the Belianske Tatry Mts. 36 % of the total area has neutral soil reaction (pH (KCl) = 6.6–7.2). This area is mainly dominated by leptosols and rendzic leptosols. Some soil types on limestone rocks for instance, leached rendzic leptosols and cambisols associated with rendzic leptosols, showed slightly acid to moderately acid soil reaction, rarely highly acid soil reaction (19 % of the total area). Highly acid and very highly acid soil reaction (pH (KCl) = 4.1–5.0) was detected in 24 % of the area but not only in the upper parts of the alpine zone but also in the soils developed from acid rocks located in the lower part of the mountain vegetation zone. In summary, extremely acid soils (pH (KCl) < 4.0) cover 21 % of the area of the Belianske Tatry Mts., very highly acid (pH (KCl) = 4.1–4.5) 16 %, highly acid to moderately acid (pH (KCl) = 4.1–5.0) 8 %, moderately acid to acid (pH (KCl) = 4.6–5.5) 6 %, acid to slightly acid (pH (KCl) = 5.1–6.5) 10 %, slightly acid (pH (KCl) = 5.6–6.5) 3 %, and neutral soils (pH (KCl) = 6.6–7.2) cover 36 % of the area. The soils with high resistance to acidification are spread on 57 % of the area. The soils with medium resistance, mainly fluvisols and cambisols, cover 17 % of the area. 27 % of the area was covered by the soils with the low resistance to acidification. Nonrendzic leptosols, cambisols, and podzols from lighter textured weathering products of acid rocks represent this class. Despite of prevailing high resistance soils to acidification (57 % of the total area), majority of soil types (70 %) showed slightly acid to extremely acid soil reactions. It is not only the effect of natural process of soil development but also the effect of acid rains.
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