Hodnotenie zraniteľnosti abiotického komplexu vysokohorského prostredia Belianskych Tatier
The primary objective is to analyze and evaluate potential detriment of the high mountain ecosystems in the Belianske Tatry Mts. The area is very diverse from geologic, geomorphologic, soil, and biotic aspects. Due to the high diversity of the environment, the area of Belianske Tatry Mts. is very attractive for tourism and leisure time activities. It is essential to prepare effective landscape planning for nature conservation authorities to lower negative effects of man use. The area was categorized into the five types of landscape based on the abiotic complex carrying capacity following Drdoš’s classification system: (1.) extremely sensitive landscape, (2.) very sensitive landscape, (3.) mediately sensitive landscape, (4.) moderately sensitive landscape, and (5.) weakly sensitive landscape. In the evaluation process, the detriment of landscape was based on environmental sensitivity of individual units creating abiotic complex to detrimental processes. The whole sensibility of abiotic complex was estimated on the sensibility of individual units as follows: (1.) sensibility of geomorphological units, (2.) sensibility of geologic substrate, (3.) sensibility of soil substrate, and (4.) sensibility of landscape to man use. When evaluating sensibility of individual units, water processes, gravitational processes, eolian processes, cryogenic processes, and biotic processes were considered to estimate their resistance. Extremely sensitive landscape is typical by intensive activity of one or several types of detrimental factors on landscape. Rock sensibility to detrimental processes is maximal; resistance is the lowest. Large areas are without vegetation. Ecosystems have very low resilience. Very sensitive landscape is characterized by permanent activity of several detrimental factors or activity of one detrimental factor of high intensity in large area respectively area with the potential for development of exogenous processes. Rock sensibility is very high; vegetation cover is damaged. Ecosystem resilience is limited so that regeneration lasts very long time. Mediately sensitive landscape is characterized by activity of at least two detrimental factors of low intensity in the landscape with steep slopes. Rock sensibility is relatively high. Vegetation cover is not compact. Regeneration of landscape lasts longer time. Moderately sensitive landscape is typical by the low degradation of environment with no detrimental processes or only one type of detrimental process in very small area. Rocks are sensitive to detrimental factors only under specific not regular conditions. Ecosystem resilience is high. Weakly sensitive landscape is characterized by very low degradation. Detrimental processes are very low with very limited effects. Rock sensibility is minimal. Rock substrate is very resistant to man activities. Ecosystems have high regeneration ability.
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