Zmeny vo flóre a vegetácii vysokých pohorí – invázie cudzích druhov
Invasions of non-native species causes of drastic changes to the original ecosystems and could damage their biodiversity, structure, species richness, and, also, health of man. Distribution, spread and invasive behavior of alien, introduced and/or other non-native species were studied in the High Tatras Mts., the Tatra foothills, the Podtatra basin in 1992 and 1995-97. The field surveys were focused on distribution, dispersal patterns (solitary, random, clumped distribution), invasive behavior, and the dynamic of range expansion. Extensive mapping of habitats along roads mainly “the Road of Freedom”, forest roads, railways, tourist trails, parks, flower garden, urbanized sites, grasslands, hotels, parking places, etc. were searched for occurrence of invasive species. Five invasive plant species, Impatiens parviflora, Heracleum mantegazzianum, Fallopia japonica, and Telekia speciosa, were found in the study area. The species were cultivated, escaped and recently they spread along roads and railways, invading forest parks and forests. Impatiens parviflora was the first time detected in 1935 in the Tatra foothills. At the present, species is spread in the whole studied area along forest edges, in parks, suburban settlements, and sometimes even in flower gardens. In some sites, it grows in the continuous copses. Heracleum mantegazzianum was cultivated as decorative plant in 1970’s and 1980’s. The exact date of planting is not known; however, the oldest published sources are from 1974 when growing along hospitals and streams. Presently, it can be commonly found along parking places and ”the Road of Freedom”. Species is managed by the Slovak National Park Service authorities; however, number of sites is still not cut. Fallopia japonica was the first time detected in 1967. Currently, it grows in high, dense clumps along trails, roads in settlements, and in forests. In some areas, it is still planted. Species was not in the scope of plant ecologist and wildlife managers, consequently it widely spread. Being considered species with the highest invasive potential, its regulation will be very difficult. Hybrid species Fallopia bohemica has even stronger dynamic of range expansion. Fallopia sachalinensis is relatively rare in the region, may be found around hotels and in the settlements. Lupinus polyphyllus is cultivated as flower plant, but also as food for game animals. Locally, it is spread along forest edges and gapes. It frequently occurs along ”the Road of Freedom” and spread to lighter parts of forest interior especially into spruce monocultures. Telekia speciosa is considered native species in the eastern Slovakia where it grows along streams. It has spread the geographic range toward west. It also occurred in the High Tatras where it was planted in flower gardens. It has been detected in other mountains in the northwestern Slovakia. Management of the invading species is insufficient, and it probably does not stop their range expansions.
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