Zmeny štruktúry rastlinných spoločenstiev v okolí turistického chodníka v Belianskych Tatrách
The effects of tourism on vegetation of the interpretive trail (Ždiar – Monkova dolina – Široké sedlo – Vyšné Kopské sedlo – Kopské sedlo, the Belianske Tatry Mts.) was studied in the period 1993-96. Permanent monitoring plots 0.25, 1, 4, or 6 m2 in size were located directly on the trail or in very close distance. The plots were divided into smaller 0.01 m2 (10 ×10 cm) subplots, in which abundance of individual plant populations and vegetation coverage were estimated. Also, effects of trampling, erosion, and suitability of trail arrangement on the vegetation were measured. After the five year period of the rail use, the vegetation coverage on the trail decline to about 60–100 % and in several plots 1 m off the trail to 20 %. Decline of trampling sensitive species decreases the total species richness of the community. Dianthus glacialis, Sedum alpestre, Dryas octopetala, Potentilla aurea, Ranunculus pseudomontanus, Cerastium tatrae, and species of genera Saxifraga and Carex seemed to be the most sensitive to trampling due to drastic decline in numbers in the consequent years after opening. These species may be characterized as slowly growing perennial plants, producing relatively low numbers of quality seeds, the recolonisation resp. regeneration time is very slow. The second group is represented by the species, e.g. genera Alchemilla, Rumex, Taraxacum, with complex root system, high regeneration and growth ability. Relatively common on the plots off the trail are species that retreated from the trail, but off the trail produce high numbers of seeds and are able to recolonize back the trail very fast after the negative man influence stops. Bistorta vivipara, Cardaminopsis arenosa, Galium anisophyllum, Anthyllis alpestris, Biscutella laevigata, Gentianella lutescens, Scabiosa lucida, Campanula alpina, etc. belong to this group. Grasses Festuca versicolor, Sesleria tatrae, Agrostis rupestris, and Poa alpina belong to specific group. They are resistant to trampling for longer time and their process of destruction by trampling is different. The most sensitive is Sesleria tatrae and Festuca versicolor whose clumps break apart and are destroyed fast. The most resistant species is Agrostis rupestris. Poa alpina has very specific behavior, especially the vivipa rous form that annually produces high numbers of vital individuals. In the first years of trail use, the higher species richness was detected directly on the trail. Species were early successional that are outcompeted by climax species in the later successional stages. They do not form the compact grassland community.
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