Bryobioindication of imission load in the Tatra Mountains, Slovakia
The idea of bryophyte utilization for bioindication arose in seventies (Clymo 1963, Rühling and Tyler 1970). This method is based on the fact, that majority of nutrients receive bryophytes from precipitation or from dry deposition. Bryophytes are more convenient for deposition survey than vascular plants because: (a) they are perennial plants without leafless period, (b) bryophytes have high cation exchange capacity without vital cell function damaging, (c) cuticle is absent. The high cation exchange capacity, lacking cuticle and simple thalli organisation make the bryophytes unable to avoid heavy metal accumulation from deposition (Tyler 1990). With respect to nutritional independence on substratum, the bryophytes are suitable indicators for deposition monitoring, in Europe and in the USA are broadly used for this purpose (Briggs 1972, Ratcliffe 1975, Groet 1976, Gydesen and Rasmussen 1981, Burton 1990, Maňkovská 1997, Maňkovská et al. 2003, 2008, and others).
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