Breeding biology of ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus) in the West Carpathians, Slovakia

  • M. Janiga Institute of High Mountain Biology, Žilina University, Tatranská Javorina 7, SK-059 56, Slovak Republic
  • Z. Višňovská Slovak Caves Administration, State Nature Conservancy, Hodžova 11, SK-031 01 Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovak Republic
Keywords: ring ouzel, Turdus torquatus, breeding biology, the West Carpathians


Reproduction is an important life history trait, affecting both parental fitness and population persistence. To contribute to knowledge of breeding ecology of birds living in high mountain ecosystems we monitored reproductive periods of ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus) in northern Slovakia. Between May 1985 and July 1989 essential characteristics of breeding biology of this species were recorded. Field data on 40 nests from the West Carpathians were obtained. In 38 complete clutches we observed clutch sizes of three (n = 3), four (n = 24), five (n = 10) and six (n = 1) eggs. The total success rate was recalculated using 34 nests. Out of 146 eggs laid 116 young hatched (79.5 %) and 52 young fledged (35.6 %). We assume that our research caused some increased predation, so if we eliminate (statistically) this impact then the revised numbers are: 115 eggs laid, 90 young hatched (78.3 %) and 63 young fledged (54.8 %). Length of incubation was between 13 and 15 days (n = 14 nests), with an average of 14 days. The main incubation period ran from May 10th-19th. Breeding care for young in the nest lasted between 11 and 15 days, with an average of 13 days (n = 13). Shorter length of breeding care in the nest (11 days) was a result of external disturbances, mainly by raptors. Fledging largely occurred between May 21st and June 9th.

How to Cite
Janiga, M., & Višňovská, Z. (2021). Breeding biology of ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus) in the West Carpathians, Slovakia. Oecologia Montana, 30(2), 50-58. Retrieved from
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