Breeding biology of ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus) in the West Carpathians, Slovakia
Reproduction is an important life history trait, affecting both parental fitness and population persistence. To contribute to knowledge of breeding ecology of birds living in high mountain ecosystems we monitored reproductive periods of ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus) in northern Slovakia. Between May 1985 and July 1989 essential characteristics of breeding biology of this species were recorded. Field data on 40 nests from the West Carpathians were obtained. In 38 complete clutches we observed clutch sizes of three (n = 3), four (n = 24), five (n = 10) and six (n = 1) eggs. The total success rate was recalculated using 34 nests. Out of 146 eggs laid 116 young hatched (79.5 %) and 52 young fledged (35.6 %). We assume that our research caused some increased predation, so if we eliminate (statistically) this impact then the revised numbers are: 115 eggs laid, 90 young hatched (78.3 %) and 63 young fledged (54.8 %). Length of incubation was between 13 and 15 days (n = 14 nests), with an average of 14 days. The main incubation period ran from May 10th-19th. Breeding care for young in the nest lasted between 11 and 15 days, with an average of 13 days (n = 13). Shorter length of breeding care in the nest (11 days) was a result of external disturbances, mainly by raptors. Fledging largely occurred between May 21st and June 9th.
© PRUNELLA Publishers
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, elctronic, recording, etc. without the prior written permission of the publisher, PRUNELLA Publishers - RNDr. Marián Janiga, CSc., Vavra Šrobára 1524/6, 03401 Ružomberok, Slovakia, IČO: 30 525 764. Permission requests for creating new collective works, for resale, for advertising or promotional purposes, or for general distribution, should be addressed to the publisher as mentioned in the Slovak Copyright Law. Free submission of an article for publication entails the author(s) irrevocable authorization of the publisher to collect any sums or considerations for copying or reproduction payable by third parties, as mentioned in the Slovak Copyright Law. EV 3492/09.